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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, it is not currently being considered by another journal, and it will not be offered for publication elsewhere whilst it is under consideration by Mires and Peat.
  • Any parts of the manuscript that are reproduced from other sources are appropriately acknowledged, with permission from copyright owners if necessary.
  • The submission files for text, Tables plus Figure captions, and Figures are in Microsoft Word (or compatible) file format.
  • The text is double-spaced with continuous line numbering; uses 11-point Times New Roman font; follows the journal's requirements for main headings; and employs italics rather than underlining (except for URL addresses).
  • If appropriate, you have made use of (and refer to) literature syntheses. For example, if your manuscript deals with an intervention for conservation purposes, include at least a sentence in the Introduction that gives an unbiased summary of existing evidence relating to the intervention including that available from the 'Conservation Evidence' database (www.conservationevidence). If there is no previously published evidence, please state that. Another useful resource is the 'Collaboration for Environmental Evidence' (https://www.environmentalevidence.org/).
  • For all books included in the reference list, the title of the book is in italics and (at least) publisher's name, place of publication and page information are provided. If an article published in 'Mires and Peat' (i.e. this journal) is cited, the volume number, article (issue) number AND page range are shown in the corresponding reference list item. For 'non-mainstream' references (e.g. 'grey literature', theses), URLs (if available) including (last) accessed date are included in the reference list, e.g. as follows: "Online at: {URL}, accessed 03 Aug 2018."
  • The text adheres to all other stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the current Author Guidelines (below).


Manuscripts must be written in English. Author(s) are referred to the Tips for Authors (especially those who are not native English speakers) appended here. Those whose first language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a proficient third party before submission. Where departures in usage occur, the journal adopts UK-English grammar and spelling rather than e.g. USA-English.

Please note that articles arising from postgraduate theses and commissioned research reports will usually require substantial re-writing in order to convert them into a format that is suitable for journal publication.

Manuscripts should be concise, but may be as (short or) long as they need to be, within reason. A rough guide to maximum length is 6,000 words or 20 printed pages, including Figures and Tables.

Each manuscript will normally be reviewed by two referees. If it is accepted for publication, the author(s) will automatically transfer copyright to the Journal. For our full current copyright policy, see the ‘Copyright’ tab on the journal’s web page at Mires and Peat.


Manuscripts should usually follow this sequence: Title; Authors(s); Authors’ Affiliations; SUMMARY; KEY WORDS (up to 5 words that are not used in the title, in alphabetical order); INTRODUCTION (ending with a concise statement of the purpose of the paper); METHODS; RESULTS; DISCUSSION; ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; REFERENCES; Author for Correspondence (title, first name, last name, institutional postal address, telephone number, e-mail address).

If appropriate, a section entitled ‘Study area’ may be inserted between INTRODUCTION and METHODS. However, when the work relates to one or a few specific study site(s), these should be described in the first sub-section of METHODS. If your manuscript deals with an  intervention/modification, remember to check resources such as 'Conservation Evidence' (www.conservationevidence) and 'Collaboration for Environmental Evidence' (https://www.environmentalevidence.org/) and include at least a sentence in the Introduction that gives an unbiased summary of any existing evidence [see also Mires and Peat 24(18)]. If there is no previously published evidence, please state that.

A Conclusions section may be inserted between the DISCUSSION and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, but is not mandatory and should be included only if it is necessary to make the outcomes clear. We find that Conclusions are necessary only when describing unusually complex studies, and most articles work well without this section.

If there is more than one author, an AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS section should be inserted immediately before REFERENCES. Depending on the content/length of this section, it may later be merged with ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS at the discretion of an editor.

In ‘review-style’ manuscripts (i.e. ones that do not fit the usual structure for experimental studies) the main headings ‘METHODS’, ‘RESULTS’ and ‘DISCUSSION’ may be substituted with other headings relating to the substance of the work that is being reported.

Technical information

The manuscript should be provided as a Word file containing the text of the proposed article (only). The text should be double-spaced in 11 pt Times New Roman characters on page size A4 (21 x 29.7 cm), with margins of 2 cm all round (top, bottom and both sides of page) and headers/footers set 1 cm from edge of page. The first line of each paragraph should be indented by 0.5 cm UNLESS it follows a section or sub-section heading, and there should be only one character space between each pair of sentences. Pages should be numbered consecutively, including those containing Acknowledgements, References and captions. Please do not use autoformatting or cross-referencing, but do add line numbers. If you used reference management software whilst drafting, please remember to ‘convert to plain text’ before submission.

The title should be followed by the initials, surnames and brief affiliations (including countries) of the author(s). One ‘corresponding author’ should be nominated, and his/her title (e.g. Professor, Dr), first and last names, full postal address, telephone number and e-mail address should be given at the end of the manuscript. Please see papers already published in Mires and Peat for detailed examples.

The Summary should be up to (around) 200 words long, reporting concisely on the purpose and results of the work.

Three headings may be used, all aligned to the left margin: PRINCIPAL HEADING (bold, all upper case), First subheading (bold, sentence case) and Second subheading (italics, sentence case).

For general and detailed guidance on drafting, please consult our recommended text:

Clymo, R.S. (2014) Reporting Research: A Biologist's Guide to Articles, Talks, ad Posters. Cambridge University Press, 332 pp.

Please observe also the following points when drafting:

  • Units of measurement should comply with international standards (SI units).
  • The name and the units of a variable or parameter should be kept separate. For example: dry density in g m-3 NOT density in g DM m-3; ammonia-N influx in g m-2 yr-1 NOT ammonia influx in gN m-2 yr-1.
  • Please use standard abbreviations (mm, m, Ma, t, oC, NW-SE, Pb, etc.).
  • Use the word-ending ‘ise’ rather than ‘ize’ where both are available, e.g. ‘minimise’.
  • ‘Circa’ should be abbreviated to ‘ca.’ May be used to indicate approximate historical dates but NOT approximate quantities.
  • Use long hyphens [Ctrl+Fn+;(semicolon)] for ranges e.g. “pp. 237–261” and short hyphens to divide and connect words, e.g. “half-baked”.
  • Mires and Peat does not use the abbreviations “Fig.” and “Tab.” for Figures and Tables.


References in the text to other articles should merely indicate the name of the author (followed by an ampersand (&) and the name of the second author when there are two or by “et al.” in italics when there are more than two) and the publication date of the article in parentheses. If the submitted manuscript refers to two articles by the same (cited) authors from the same year, they should be distinguished by ‘a’, ‘b’ etc. appended to the date. For example: Robert & Kelly (1987a), Köppel (1983), Basto Neto et al. (1991) or (Robert & Kelly 1987a) etc. Where two or more citatations are listed together, they should be presented in date order (earliest first) and separated by commas, e.g. (Köppel 1983, Robert & Kelly 1987a, Basto Neto et al. 1991). If reference is made to two or more different authors with the same surname publishing in the same year, they should be distinguished by adding initial(s) to the citation(s) in the text (e.g. A. Smith et al. 2015, B.J. Smith et al. 2015).

List of References

The References should include all the citations quoted in the text and only those citations, listing the authors alphabetically and then chronologically when several references by the same author(s) are given. Quote journal names in full, NOT abbreviated form. References should be cited as “in press only if already accepted for publication, in which case the journal name, volume number, year and/or doi must be stated. Book and journal titles should be in italics with upper case initial letters. For books, please give the publisher, place of publication and either the total number of pages or the page range for the material cited. Where a reference is published in a language other than English, a translation of the title should be given in parentheses and the language of publication indicated. For items that are available both on paper and via the internet, “Online at:” and a web address with date (last) accessed may be appended in the reference list. References that are exclusively available by internet, and whose authorship is not clear, should be listed under the name of the author or owner of the web site. Where the reference is in a language that is written in non-Roman characters, the ‘international standard’ Roman transliteration of the citation should be used.


Williams, S.T. & Gray T.R.G. (1974) Net primary production of the dominant bryophytes in a Sphagnum-dominated wetland in West Virginia. Bryologist, 86, 280–286.

Turbridy, M. (ed) (1984) Creation and management of a heritage zone at Clonmacnoise, Co. Offaly, Ireland. EEC Final Report, Environmental Science Unit, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, 206 pp.

Finney, H.R., Gross, E.R. & Farnham, R.S. (1974) Limnic materials in peatlands of Minnesota. In: Stelly, M. (ed) Histosols: Their Characteristics, Classification and Use, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, Special Publications No. 6, 21–31.

Schuch, M. (1991) Moorforschung und Moornutzung sowie die landwirtschaftliche Niedermoornutzung und ihre Bedeutung für den Naturschutz in Bayern (Peatland research, peatland use and the agricultural utilisation of fens and their importance for nature conservation in Bavaria). Telma, 21, 19–126 (in German).

Naucke, W. (1990) Chemie von Moor und Torf (Peatland and peat chemistry). In: Göttlich, K. (ed), Moor und Torfkunde (Peatland and Peat Science). E. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 237–261 (in German).

Bragg, O. & Lindsay, R. (eds.) (2003) Strategy and Action Plan for Mire and Peatland Conservation in Central Europe. Publ. No. 18, Wetlands International, Wageningen, 93pp. Online at: http://www. wetlands.org/pubs&/CEPP.htm.

NLP Jasmund (2006) Nationalpark Jasmund: Klima und Böden (Jasmund National Park: climate and soils), http://www.nationalpark-jasmund.de/ (Das Gebiet/ Klima und Böden) (in German).

DWD (2006) Deutscher Wetterdienst: Mittelwerte der Periode 1961 bis 1990 (German Weather Service: mean values for the period 1961–1990). http://www.dwd.de/de/FundE/Klima/KLIS/daten/ online/nat/index_mittelwerte.htm (in German).

Tsinzerling, Yu.D. (1938) Rastitel'nost' bolot / Rastitel'nost' SSSR. T.1. Moskva-Leningrad. (Vegetation of mires / Vegetation of USSR. 1. Moscow-Leningrad). Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 355–428 (in Russian).

For languages written in non-Roman characters, a subsidiary reference list giving the non-Roman references cross-referenced to the transliterated items in the main reference list may (optionally) be included where authors feel that this is necessary to facilitate location of the material by readers; see Mires and Peat Volume 2 (2007) Article 01 for an example.

Tables and Figures

In the initial submission, Tables and Figures (other illustrations should be treated as Figures) should be provided in two separate Word files on page size A4 (21 x 29.7 cm), with margins of 2 cm all round (top, bottom and both sides of page). For Figures, make a Table with one column, insert Figure 1 in the first cell and copy its caption into the cell below, insert Figure 2 in the third cell and copy its caption into the cell below, etc. In the separate Word file containing the Tables (each on a separate page), please also include the Figure captions (but not the Figures themselves) collected together at the end. Tables and Figures are referred to in the text as (Table 1), (Figure 1), and their legends should be complete and understandable in their own right. Each legend should start with, e.g., 'Figure 1.' or 'Table 1.' in base font (not bold or italics). The resolution of Figures in the initial submission should be sufficiently high to make them clear on the reviewer’s computer screen, but excessively high resolutions should be avoided in order that the total size of each document submitted for review will remain manageable as an attachment to an email. If at all possible, keep the size of the whole document below 1 MB.

What is needed in the final submission for publication is described below (in REVISIONS),


Electronic submission is required using our dedicated electronic submission system. If you experience any problems please contact the Editor-in-Chief who can offer alternative routes for electronic submission.


Once your manuscript has been reviewed, the managing editor will send you a decision letter. In most cases, the acceptance of manuscripts is subject to revisions being made. When you have completed the revisions to your own satisfaction (although further amendments may be requested by Mires and Peat later), the manuscript should be re-submitted using the submission system. Resubmissions should be in the following format:

  1. A Word file containing the text.
  2. A separate Word file containing the Tables (including captions), with Figure captions collected together at the end. This file should not contain the Figures UNLESS you are unable to provide any of them as separate files (see below).
  3. Each Figure should now be provided as an individual file in a recognised image format, at a resolution of at least 300 dpi. for an area usually between 2 and 5 inches (5 and 12 cm) side. Bit image files in ‘.tif’, ‘.tiff’, ‘.png’, or in vector image ‘.svg’ are the best. These can be compressed and decompressed without loss of information. The ‘.jpg’, ‘.jpeg’ formats are suitable if that is the format of the original image, as it often is with photographs, but should not be used otherwise because every time a ‘jpeg’ image is saved some information is lost, even with a ‘no compression’ setting. The ‘.raw’ format for photographs is not suitable because there are numerous proprietary variants of it. Avoid sending very large graphics files, as these will have to be compressed or otherwise reduced in size before publication. If you have any Figures that are not available as separate image files, these may (exceptionally) be presented (at resolution suitable for publication) in a single-column Table (as at submission, see above) in the second Word file (with the Tables) or in a separate (third) Word file.


Write well

  • Apply guidelines for good writing, e.g. Strunk: The elements of style
  • Follow all guidance provided by Clymo (2014) - see above
  • Let experienced authors criticise your text.

Write in English

  • Write directly in English. Do not translate from your mother tongue, because different languages use different phraseology. Distrust translation machines.
  • Make intensive use of a dictionary (in both directions, e.g. German-English and English-German) and an English thesaurus.
  • Let a (near-) native speaker, with expertise in grammar and spelling, check your text.

Write clearly

  • Avoid vague and non-specific words. Remember that every term must have an exact meaning.
  • Define important terms (such as mire, bog, rich, eutrophic…).
  • Use one term for one concept and avoid synonyms.
  • Use would, should, could, may, might and can only for expressing real uncertainty.
  • Use definite, simple language and avoid abbreviations.
  • Use sentences connected by and, but, who, which, when, where, and while only occasionally.
  • Make text in Figures large enough to be readable even after reduction.

Write concisely

  • Make definite assertions; avoid tame, colourless, hesitant and ambiguous language.
  • Omit needless words.
  • Use the active voice.
  • Use positive form, even for negative statements; e.g. “we ignored” rather than “we did not pay attention to”.
  • Wherever possible, present a complex idea in one sentence rather than in a series of sentences.
  • Use Tables and Figures to structure and simplify the paper.
  • Keep the text clear, but avoid ‘telegram style’.

Write paragraphs

  • Deal with each topic in a separate paragraph.
  • Start every paragraph with a sentence that either indicates the topic or provides a transition from the last paragraph.
  • Present paragraphs in a logical order.

Write modestly

  • Avoid awkward adverbs and fancy words.
  • Use nouns and verbs in preference to adjectives and adverbs.
  • Use orthodox (non-experimental) English spelling.
  • Avoid qualifiers like unique, most optimal (!), rather, very, little, relatively, pretty,
  • Avoid exclamation marks.

Refer correctly

  • Use cf. (Latin confer, compare) when quoting indirectly.
  • Use modified from to indicate Figures or Tables that have been modified from other publications.
  • Use after when presenting data from another publication in a different form.
  • Include all cited references, with complete bibliographic data, in the Reference List.

Follow the standard outline

  1. Title of paper; this should give a concise indication of the content.
  2. Name(s) (initials and surname) and short affiliation(s) of author(s); note that 'author for correspondence' comes after REFERENCES.
  3. SUMMARY: gives a short overview of the content of the paper.
  4. KEY WORDS (up to 5): do not repeat words that appear in the title.
  5. INTRODUCTION: contains the background to and the formulation of the research question, and ends with a concise statement of the purpose of the paper.
  6. METHODS: description of what was done; should include a description of any field area where the research was carried out.
  7. RESULTS: presents the results in an objective way, without discussion.
  8. DISCUSSION: discusses the results and their interpretation in the context of other research, in terms of answering the research question.
  9. Conclusions: may (seldom) be needed to draw together threads from a very complex study.
  10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: if your submission arises from a conference presention, mention it here; also consider mentioning funders, colleagues who helped, reviewers and editors.
  11. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS: if there is more than one author.
  12. REFERENCES: every source mentioned (cited) in text, captions, Tables and/or Appendices should have a corresponding entry in reference list.